Sinsir Osnádúrtha na nGael / Ancestor-Gods of the Irish

       Sinsir Osnádúrtha na nGael

Réamhrá

 

Ní fada ó shin gur chreid cuid is mó ár sinsear go raibh Éire lán le daoine osnádúrtha feicthe agus dofheicthe .i. na Sí nó ‘Daoine Maithe’ nó ‘Daoine na gCnoc’ mar a dtugtar orthu inár mbéaloideas.  Agus go raibh cuid desna Gaeil i dteagmháil leis na daoine osnádúrtha sin go minic.  (Nó go laethúil i gcás mo sheamháthair mhór anseo i Meiriceá.)  Agus gur tháinig grá ó am go ham agus fiú páistí den teagmháil sin, mar a fheicimid i sean-scéalta faoi Niamh, Oisín, Neara, Macha, Fionn agus a lán eile, agus i nua-scéalta faoi shloinnte mar na hUí Conghaile i gConnacht.  Agus desna páistí sin, creideadh gur tháinig sliocht leath-dhaonna agus leath-osnádúrtha ar an domhan.

 

Ach lig dúinn tosú ag an dtosach.

 

I. An Comhthéacs Indó-Eorpach Iartharach

 

Chreid na Gréagaigh gur tháinig cuid mhaith a ríthe tábhachtachta anuas ó Heracles mac Zeus.  Mar shampla, Ríthe an Mhacadóin (Alasandar Mór ina measc) agus Ríthe Sparta (Leonidas ina measc). (1) (2)    

 

Chreid na Romhánaigh gur tháinig Romulus, Remus, agus Gens Julia (.i. Teaghlach Julia, agus Gaius Julius Caesar ina measc) anuas ó Venus trína mac Aeneas. (3)

 

Chreid Lochlannaigh, Gearmánaigh, agus Angló-Sacsanaigh gur tháinig cuid mhaith a ríthe anuas ó Wodan (.i. Odin).  Mar shampla, gur tháinig Ríthe Westphalia agus Wessex anuas ó ‘Baeldaeg’ (.i. Baldur) mac Wodan, (4) (5)  agus gur tháinig Ríthe Bernicia (.i. Northumbria) anuas ó ‘Wecta’ mac Wodan. (6)

 

Ag teacht anois chuig na Ceiltigh, thuairiscigh Caesar:

 

“Deir na Gaill go léir go dtagann siad anuas ó Athair Dis, agus deir siad go gcoimeádann na draoithe an traidisiún seo dóibh ó ghlúin go glúin.” (7)

 

B’fhéidir gurbh é ‘Donn’ nó a leithéid an fíor-ainm don dia Ceilteach seo air a dtug Caesar an t-ainm Romhánach ‘Dis Pater’. Ar aon chuma, smaoiníonn an t-Ollamh Proinsias Mac Cana, ceanna desna húdair is mó ar mhiotaseolaíocht Cheilteach, go raibh an dia ‘Dis Pater’ na Gaille ársa an-chosúil leis an dia Donn na hÉireann ársa. (8)

 

II. Sinsir Osnádúrtha na gCeilteach Réamh-Chríostaí i nÉirinn

 

Mar a fheicfimid thíos, is léir ó mhórán bun-fhoinsí gur chreid ár sinsir réamh-Chríostaí gur tháinig cuid mhór acu (nó b’fhéidir gach ceann acu, mar Ceiltigh na Gaille) anuas ó dhéithe.

 

Mar shampla:

 

      A.  Geographia le Ptolemy

 

Ina Geographia, scríobh Ptolemy Chathair Alastair (ca. A.D. 90 – ca. A.D. 168) caibidil ar thíreolaíocht na hÉireann (8) (10) ina bhfaighimid ainmneacha na dtreibheanna seo:

 

Dairini – Is léir gurb iad seo an Dáirfhine .i. Fine an dia Dáire.  Inár Seanchas, tagann Ulaidh na hUladh agus Érainn na Mumhan anuas ón Dáirfhine.  Ba iad Uí Eochaidh (‘Hoy’) agus Mic Dhuinn Shléibhe (‘Dunlevy’) ríthe na hUladh sna meán-aoiseanna. (11) (12) (13)    

                                                                             

Iverni.  Is iad na hÉrainn iad seo. (14)   Litríodh a n-ainm sna sean-lámhscríbhinní mar Íarna agus Érna, .i. Cnuas-sliocht an dé Íar nó Ér.  Tagann cuid mhaith treibheanna agus sloinnte na Mumhan anuas uathu, Ó hEidirsceoil ('O'Driscoll') an Chorca Laoidhe ina measc. (15) 

 

Brigantes.  Ainmníodh iad seo dá mban-dia iomráiteach Brigantia (i. Barr-Rioghan). In Éirinn, cuirtear ‘Brighid’ ar a mbandia agus ‘Uí Bhairrche’ orthu. Lonnaigh siad i Laighin.(16) Tagann na logainmneacha ‘Bargy’ (Bairrche) i gCo. Loch Garman agus Slievemargy (Sliabh mBairrche) i gCo. Laoise uathu. (17)   Ba iad Uí Threasaigh (‘O’Tracy’) agus Mic Ghormáin (‘O’Gorman’ agus ‘MacGorman’) a ríthe sna meánaoiseanna. (18)

 

      B.  In Ainmneacha Treibheanna Eile

 

Is féidir linn ainmneacha déithe a fháil i mórán treibh-ainmneacha luatha págánacha nach luaítear i dTíreolaíocht Ptolemy.(19) Mar shampla:

 

Dál Riata nó Dál Riada – Dúradh gur tháinig an mhuintir seo (in Ulaidh agus in Albain) anuas ó Eochu Riada .i. Eochu an Marcach.  Is é Each-Dhia nó ‘Cosúil le hEach’ an chiall do ‘Eochu’. (20)   Bhí an capall an-naofa i measc na gCeilteach, b’fhéidir a n-ainmhí is naofa mar a fheicimid le huimhir a ndéithe a raibh dlúth-ghaol acu leis an gcapall:  Epona, Rhiannon, Labhraidh Loingseach, Macha Mongfind, 7rl.

 

Boandraige - 'Boann-Mhuintir’.  Is í an bandia Boann a thug a hainm don abhainn ‘Boyne’ i Laighin.  I Lebor Gabála Érenn, is í iníon Dhealbhaoidh í. (21)   Gairmeadh Dealbhaodh do ríogacht na dTuatha Dé Danann díreach tar éis réimeas an Daghda. (22)

 

Luigne - 'Cnuas-Sliocht Lugha'.  Ba é an dia is coitinne nó coitianta i measc na gCeilteach ar fud na hEorpa agus na hAnatolia é Lugh. Tagann Uí Eadhra (‘O’Hara’) agus Uí Ghadhra (‘O’Gara’) anuas ón muintir seo i gConnacht. (23)

 

Cianachta - 'Sliocht Chéin' nó ‘Cian-sliocht’.  I gcuid desnár nginealaigh mhiotaseolaíochta, is athair Lugha agus mhac Déin Chéacht na dTuatha Dé Danann é Cian.  Tá na Cianachta scaipithe in áiteanna éagsúla in Éirinn.  Tagann mórán sloinnte anuas uathu, Uí Mheachair (O’Meagher’, ‘O’Maher’, 7rl.) i Mumhan ina measc.

 

III.  Sinsir Osnádúrtha i Seanchas Críostaí na nGael

 

      A.  Labraid Moen

 

Inár nginealaigh ársa Chríostaí, tagann na Laighin go léir, agus finte mar Uí Chinnsealaigh, Mic Mhurchadha ina measc, anuas ó Labraid Moen.  I ndánta ársa na Laighean, faighimid rannta mar seo:

 

Ór ós gréin/ gelmair/ gabais for doíne domnaib/ sceo dee/ dia oín/ as Móen mac Áine/ oínrí. (24)  

Ór os cionn na gréine, geal, a ghabhann tíortha na ndaoine agus na ndéithe, an t-aon dia, is Moen mac Áine, an t-aon rí.

Sa scéal Cath Maige Mucrama, faighte i Leabhar Laigheann, tháinig Áine (.i. máthair Labraid Moen) as na sí-bhrúnna mar a fheicimid anseo:

 

Dollotar asin tsíd & Eogabul mac Durgabuil rí in tsída ... & Áne ingen Eogabuil & timpán creda ina láim oca seinm dó ... (25)

 

Chuaigh Eogabul mac Durgabuil, rí na Sí, as an sí-bhrú ... agus Áine iníon Eogabuil agus tiompán cré-umha ina lámh á seinm dó ...

      B.  Lugh

 

Ba rí-shliocht na gCorcu Loígde iad na hUí Eidirsceoil (‘O'Driscoll’).  Ainmnítear an mhuintir seo in onóir Lugaid Loígde (.i. Lughaidh Laoidhe i Nua-Ghaeilge).  Is é ‘Síol Lughaidh Laoidhe’ an chiall do ‘Corcu Loígde’.  Seo daoibh a nginealaigh ón lámhscríbhinn ar a dtugtar ‘Rawlinson B.502’:

 

... Lugaid Loígde m. Dáiri Doimtig nó Sírchréchtaig m. Sidebuilg m. Fir Suilne m. Tecmanrach m. Loga m. Eithlenn m. Luigdech m. Bregaind ...(26) 

 

... Lughaidh Laoidhe mac Dháire Doimhthigh nó Síorchréachtaigh mhic Shidhbhuilg mhic Fhir Shuilne mhic Theachmhanrach mhic Lugha mhic Eithlenn mhic Lughaidh mhic Bhreogain ...

 

Mar a fheicimid sa ghinealach seo, tagann Lugaid Loígde anuas ó “Sidebulg, ainm gur féidir linn aistriú mar ‘Sí-Thintreach’, (27)  agus tagann Sidebulg anuas ón dia iomráiteach Lugh. 

 

      C.  Láir

 

Ba ghall-óglaigh agus Ghall-Ghaeil iad na Mic Chába (‘MacCabes’).  Seo daoibh achoimre a sinsearacht: (28)     

 

Sloinne:  Mac Cába                   

desna:  Clann Tormoid              

desna:  Clann Leóid .i. Mic Leóid

desna:  Uí Néid                                  

desna:  Síol Sin-Íomhair           

desna:  Fionn-Ghaill      

desna:  Lochlannaigh     

desna:  Gall-Ghaeil                            

desna:  Sean-Ghaill                

desna:  Gaill                           

 

Mar a fheicimid, is craobh na Mac Leóid iad, agus bhí siad chomh Gaelaithe sin óna n-am in Éirinn nó roimh a n-am in Éirinn gur féidir linn é seo a fháil i Leabhar na nGenealach scríofa le Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh ca. 1650:

 

Leód ó ttáid Clanna Leóid, m. Lára (agus as í táining a síoth-broghaibh i riocht lára ionnus go rug triar mac ar a ffuil sliocht) ... (29)

Leód ó bhfuil Clann Leóid mic Lára (agus is í a tháinig ó Shí-bhrúnna i riocht lára ionas go rug sí triúr mac ar a bhfuil sliocht) ...

IV.  A Chríochnú

 

Níl na samplaí thuas cuimsitheach.  Níor luaigh mé tuatha nó aicmí a chreid gur tháinig siad anuas ó dhéithe agus bhandéithe mar Áine, Óengus, Ciar, Macha, Mug Ruith, Nuadu, agus a lán eile.  Níor luaigh mé samplaí ó Albain agus Oileán Mhanainn, nó pósadh an Normanaigh Ghearóid Iarla Mhic Ghearailt le hÁine.  Ach mar a fheicimid ón dornán thuas, bhí Gaeil (agus fiú Gall-Ghaeil!) i ngach aird na hÉireann a chreid gur tháinig siad anuas ó dhéithe (san aimsir phágánach) nó ó na Sí (san aimsir Chríostaí). 

 

B’fhéidir gurb é seo ceann desna fáthanna gur mhair ár Sí-chreidheamh chomh láidir sin agus chomh fada sin.  I ndeireadh na dála, is deacair dúinn ár sinsir féin a shéanadh, go háirithe sinsir chomh iontach agus ár sean-déithe agus Sí.

 

Supernatural Ancestors of the Gaeil

Introduction

 

It wasn’t long ago that most of our ancestors believed that Ireland was full of visible and invisible supernatural people, i.e., the Sí or ‘Good People’ or ‘People of the Hills’ as they are called in our folklore.  And that some of the Gaeil were in contact with these supernatural people often.  (Or daily in the case of my great-grandmother.)  And that love came from time to time and even children from that contact, as we see in the old stories about Niamh, Oisín, Neara, Macha, Fionn and plenty more, and in new stories about families like the O’Connellys of Connacht.  And from those children, it was believed that progeny half-human and half-supernatural came upon the earth.

 

But let’s start at the beginning.

 

I.  The Western Indo-European Context

 

The Greeks believed that a good portion of their important kings descended from Heracles son of Zeus.  For example, the Kings of Macedonia (including Alexander the Great) and the Kings of Sparta (including Leonidas). (1) (2)

 

The Romans believed that Romulus, Remus, and the Gens Julia (i.e., the House of the Julii, including Gaeius Julius Caesar) descended from Venus through her son Aeneas. (3)

 

The Scandinavians, Germans, and Anglo-Saxons believed that a good portion of their kings descended from Wodan (i.e., Odin).  For example, that the Kings of Westphalia and Wessex descended from ‘Baeldaeg’ (i.e., Baldur) son of Wodan, (4) (5)  and that the Kings of Bernicia (i.e., Northumbria) descended from ‘Wecta’ son of Wodan. (6)

 

Coming now to the Celts, Caesar reported:

 

"The Gauls claim to be all descended from Father Dis and say that this is a tradition which has been handed down to them by the Druids.” (7)

 

Perhaps ‘Donn’ or its like was the true name for this Celtic god whom Caesar called by the Roman name ‘Dis Pater’.  At any rate, Professor Proinsias Mac Cana, one of the greatest experts on Celtic mythology, believes that ‘Dis Pater’ of ancient Gaul was very similar to the god Donn of ancient Ireland. (8)

 

II.  Supernatural Ancestors of the Pre-Christian Celts of Ireland

 

As we will see below, it is apparent from a number of sources that our pre-Christian ancestors believed that many of them (or perhaps all of them, like the Celts of Gaul) descended from gods.

 

For example:

 

      A.  In the Geography by Ptolemy

 

In his Geographia, Ptolemy of Alexandria (ca. A.D. 90 – ca. A.D. 168) wrote a chapter on the geography of Ireland (9) (10)   in which we find the names of these tribes:

 

Dairini – It’s apparent that these are the Dáirfhine, i.e., the Family of the god Dáire.  In our Seanchas, the Ulaidh of Ulster and the Érainn of Munster descend from the Dáirfhine. (11) (12) (13)

 

Iverni.  These are the Érainn. (14)   Their name was written in old manuscripts as Íarna and Érna, i.e., the Collective Descendants of the god Íar or Ér.  A number of tribes and families of Munster descend from them. (15)

 

Brigantes.  These were named for their famous goddess Brigantia (i.e., High-Queen).  In Ireland, their goddess is called ‘Brighid’ and they are called ‘Uí Bhairrche’.  They settled in Leinster. (16)   The placenames ‘Bargy’ (Bairrche) in Co. Wexford and ‘Slievemargy’ (Sliabh mBairrche) in Co. Laois come from them. (17) (18)  Their kings in the Middle Ages were the Uí Threasaigh (‘O’Tracys’) and Mic Ghormáin (O’Gormans and Mac Gormans).  (18)

 

      B.  In the Names of Other Tribes  

 

We can find names of gods in many early, pagan tribe-names which are not mentioned in the Geographia of Ptolemy. (19)   For example: 

 

Dál Riata or Dál Riada – It was said this this people (in Ulster and in Scotland) descended from Eochu Riada, i.e., Eochu the Rider.  The meaning of ‘Eochu’ is ‘Steed-God’ or ‘Like a Steed’). (20)   The horse was very sacred amongst the Celts, perhaps their most sacred animal as we see by the number of gods who had a special relationship with the horse:  Epona, Rhiannon, Labhraidh Loingseach, Macha Mongfind, etc.

 

Boandraige – ‘Boann-People’.  It is the goddess Boann who gave her name to the river ‘Boyne’ in Leinster.  In The Book of the Takings of Ireland, she is the daughter of Dealbhaodh. (21)   Dealbhaodh was called to the Kingship of the Tuatha Dé Danann directly after the reign of the Daghda. (22)

 

Luigne – ‘Collective-Descendants of Lugh’.  Lugh was the most popular or common god amongst the Celts throughout Europe and Anatolia. (23)  The Uí Eadhra (O’Haras) and Uí Ghadhra (O’Garas) descend from these people in Connacht. (23)

 

Cianachta – ‘Descendants of Cian’ or ‘Cian-descendants’.  In some of our mythological genealogies, Cian is the father of Lugh and the son of Dian Chéacht of the Tuatha Dé Danann.   The Cianachta are scattered in various places in Ireland.  Many families descend from them, including he Uí Meachair (O’Meaghers, O’Mahers, etc.) in Munster.

 

III. Supernatural Ancestors in the Christian Seanchas of the Gaeil

 

      A.  Labraid Moen

 

In our ancient Christian genealogies, all the Laighin, including famiiles like the Uí Chinnsealaigh (O’Kinsellas) and Mic Mhurchadha (O’Murroughs), descend from Labraid Moen.  In ancient poems of the Laighin, we find stanzas like this:

 

Ór ós gréin/ gelmair/ gabais for doíne domnaib/ sceo dee/ dia oín/ as Móen mac Áine/ oínrí. (24)

Gold above the sun, bright, who takes lands of men and gods, the one god is Moen son of Áine, the one king.

In the story Cath Maige Mucrama, found in the Book of  Leinster, Áine (i.e., the mother of Labraid Moen) came from the sí-palaces as we see here:

 

Dollotar asin tsíd & Eogabul mac Durgabuil rí in tsída ... & Áne ingen Eogabuil & timpán creda ina láim oca seinm dó ... (25)

Eogabul mac Durgabuil, rí na Sí, went out of the Sí-palace... and Áine the daughter of Eogabul and a bronze iompán in her hand playing it for him ...

      B.  Lugh

 

The Uí Edirsceoil (O’Driscolls) are the royal dynasty of the Corcu Loígde.  This people are named in honor of Lugaid Loígde (i.e., Lughaidh Laoidhe in Modern Irish).  The meaning of ‘Corcu Loígde’ is ‘Seed of  Lughaidh Laoidhe’.  Here is their genealogy from the manuscript called ‘Rawlinson B.502’:

 

... Lugaid Loígde m. Dáiri Doimtig nó Sírchréchtaig m. Sidebuilg m. Fir Suilne m. Tecmanrach m. Loga m. Eithlenn m. Luigdech m. Bregaind ... (26)

 

... Lugaid Loígde son of Dáire Doimtig or Síorchréchtaig son of Sidebulg son of Fir Suilne son of Tecmanrach son of Lugh son of Eithliu son of Lughaidh son of Breogan ...

 

As we see in this genealogy, Lugaid Loígde descends from “Sidebulg”, a name which we can translate as ‘Sí-Lightning’, (27)  and Sidebulg descends from the famous god Lugh.

 

      C.  Láir

 

The Mic Chába (‘MacCabes’) were ‘galloglasses’ and Gall-Ghaeil.  Here is a summary of their ancestry:  (28)

 

Surname:  Mac Cába

of the: Clann Tormoid

of the:  Clann Leóid .i. Mic Leóid

of the:  Uí Néid                                  

of the:  Síol Sin-Íomhair           

of the:  Fionn-Ghaill      

of the:  Lochlannaigh     

of the:  Gall-Ghaeil                            

of the:  Sean-Ghaill                

of the:  Gaill                           

 

They were so Gaelicized from their time in Ireland or before their time in Ireland that we can find this in the Book of Genealogies written by Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh ca. 1650:

 

Leód ó ttáid Clanna Leóid, m. Lára (agus as í táining a síoth-broghaibh i riocht lára ionnus go rug triar mac ar a ffuil sliocht) ... (29)

Leód from whom are the Clann Leóid son of Láir (and it is she who came from the Sí-palaces in the form of a mare so that she bore three sons from whom are progeny) ...

IV.  To Conclude

 

The examples above are not comprehensive.  I didn’t mention tribes or kinships who believed they descended from gods and goddesses like Áine, Óengus, Ciar, Macha, Mug Ruith, Nuadu, and many others.  I didn’t mention examples from Scotland or the Isle of Mann, or the marriage of the Norman Earl Gearóid Fitzgerald to Áine.  But as we see from the handful above, there were Gaeil (and even Gall-Ghaeil!) in every part of Ireland who believed that they descended from gods (in the pagan period) or from the Sí (in the Christian period).

 

Perhaps this is one of the reasons why our belief in the Sí continued so strongly and for so long.  At the end of the day, it’s hard for us to deny our own ancestors, especially ancestors as wonderful as our old gods and the Sí.   

 

BUN-FHOINSÍ / SOURCES

 

Best, R. I., Osborn Bergin, M. A. O'Brien and Anne O'Sullivan, editors.   The Book of Leinster, formerly Lebar na Núachongbála.  6 volumes.  Dublin:  Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.  Electronic text:  http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G800011E/index.html

 

Caesar, Gaius Julius.  The War Commentaries of Caesar.  Translated by Rex Warner.  New York:  The New American Library.  1960.

 

Garmonsway, G.N., translator.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.  London:  J.M. Dent & Sons.  1972

 

Herodotus.  The History.  Translated by David Grene.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press. 1987

 

Mac Cana, Proinsias.  Celtic Mythology.  New York:  Hamlyn Publishing Group.  1970

 

Mac Fhirbhisigh, Dubhaltach.  Nollaig Ó Muraíle, editor.  Leabhar Mór na nGenealach / The Great Book of Irish Genealogies.  5 volumes.  Dublin:  De Búrca Books, 2003.

 

Mac Niocaill, Gearóid.  Ireland Before The Vikings.  Gill History Of Ireland Series, Volume 1.   Dublin:  Gill and MacMillan, 1972

 

MacAlister, R.A. Stewart, editor.  Lebor Gabála Érenn - The Book of the Taking of Ireland.  5 volumes.  London:   Cumann na Sgríbheann nGaedhilge / The Irish Texts Society, 1939.

 

MacLysaght, Edward.  The Surnames of Ireland.  New York: Barnes & Noble, 1969

 

Ó Buachalla, Liam, et. al.   Irish Historical & Archaeological Researches:  Collected works of Liam O'Buachalla.  Carrigtwohill, Co. Cork:  Clann na Gréine, Teo., 1988.

 

Ó Corráin, Donnchadh.  Ireland before The Normans.  Gill History of Ireland Series, Volume 2.   Dublin:  Gill and MacMillan, 1972

 

Ó Corráin, Donnchadh.  "Creating the Past:  The Early Irish Genealogical Tradition,"  Chronicon 1 (1997) 2:  1-32.  Electronic text:

http://www.ucc.ie/chronicon/ocorr.htm

 

O'Brien, Michael A., editor.  Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae.  Dublin:  Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1962.

 

O'Rahilly, T.F.  Early Irish History and Mythology.  Dublin:  Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1946, 1971 reprint.

 

Plutarch.  Lives of the Noble Greeks.  A Selection edited by Edmund Fuller.  New York:  Dell Publishing Company, 1959

 

Ptolemy, Claudius.  Louis Francis, translator.  Ptolemy’s Geographia.  1994.  Electronic file at http://www.reshistoriaeantiqua.co.uk/Ptolemy%20B.html

 

Seyffert, Oskar.  Dictionary of Classical Antiquities.  Edited by Henry Nettleship and J.E. Sandys.  New York:  Meridian Books.  1969

 

Sturluson, Snorri.  The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturluson. Tales from Norse Mythology selected and translated by Jean I. Young.  Berkeley:  University of California Press.  1966    

 

Woulfe, Patrick.  Sloinnte Gaedheal Is Gall.  Kansas City:  Irish Genealogical Foundation, 1992 reprint of 1923 edition

 

 

NÓTAÍ

 

1  Herodotus, The History.  7.208, p. 543

2  Plutarch, Lives of the Noble Greeks, p. 269

3  Seyffert, Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, pps.10-11

4  Garmonsway, translator.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, p. 2

5  Sturluson, The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturluson, p. 26

6  Garmonsway, translator.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, p. 13

7  aistrithe de "The Gauls claim to be all descended from Father Dis and say that this is a tradition which has been handed down to them by the Druids.”  - War Commentaries of Caesar, translated by Rex Warner.  p. 125

8  Mac Cana, pps 42-44

9  Ptolemy, Geographia, Book 2, Section 2 ag http://www.reshistoriaeantiqua.co.uk/Ptolemy%20B.html

10  O’Rahilly, Chapter 1

11  Woulfe, p. 355

12  MacLysaght, p. 93

13  Ó Buachalla, Liam, et. al.  p. 159

14  O’Rahilly, p. 9

15  Ó Corráin, Ireland before the Normans, p. 171

16  Ó Corráin, Ireland before the Normans, p. 25

17  O'Rahilly, pps. 34-38

18  Woulfe, p. 381, 544

19  Mac Niocaill, pps. 3-4

20  O’Rahilly, p. 295

21  MacAlister, editor.  Lebor Gabála Érenn, Volume IV, p. 130, par. (aa)

22  MacAlister, editor.  Lebor Gabála Érenn, Volume IV, p. 124, par. 315  

23  Woulfe, p. 535-536; 560-561

24  Ó Corráin, “Creating the Past:  The Early Irish Genealogical Tradition” san iris leictreonach  Chronicon, Imleabhar 1 (1997) 2: 1-32 ag   http://www.ucc.ie/chronicon/ocorr.htm  .  Cuir i gcomparáid aistriúchán Uí Chorráin: “Gold more shining than the bright sun, there seized the lands of humans and of gods the one god who is Moín, son of Áine, the one king.”

25  Best, et. al., editors.  Book of Leinster, formerly Lebar na Núacohngbála, section 39, p.1252 MS folio 288a15 at http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G800011E/index.html .

26  O'Brien, Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae.  p. 156, par. 155.a.3

27  O'Rahilly, p. 52

28  Mac Firbhisigh, Leabhar Mór na nGenealach, Vol. III, p. 50, par. 776.2-776.3

29  Mac Firbhisigh, Leabhar Mór na nGenealach, Vol. III, p. 50, par. 776.2

 

 

Copyright © 2015 by Gerald A. John Kelly

All Rights Reserved - No Reproduction Without Written Permission of the Author

Print Print | Sitemap
Copyright © 2014 by Gerald A. John Kelly - 1&1 MyWebsite