Éadhmonn Nuinseann agus an Choilíneacht Chaillte Roanoke / Edward Nugent and the Lost Colony of Roanoke

Éadhmonn Nuinseann agus an Choilíneacht Chaillte Roanoke

 

Tá an-chlú ar an scéal seo sna Stáit Aontaithe Mheiriceá.  Seo daoibh an scéal mar a n-insítear agus mar a múintear é i ngach téacsleabhar agus i ngach scoil sna Stáit Aontaithe, agus leis an Seirbhís Náisiúnta Páirce, cuid de rialtas S.A.M.

 

Ba é an chéad triall a ndearna na Sasanaigh chun buan-choilíneacht a bhunú i Meiriceá Thuaidh.  I 1585, 1586, agus 1587, chuir Sir Walter Raleigh coilínigh siar thar an sáile go Roanoke, oileán ar an gcósta atá anois sa stáit North Carolina, cé nár tháinig sé féin.  Bhí cairde ag na Sasanaigh i measc na Meiriceánach Dúchasach nó n-Indiach Meiriceánach ar Oileán Croatan (b'fhéidir Hatteras Island inniu), ach lonnaigh na Sasanaigh ar oileán eile in aice Croatan darbh ainm Roanoke. 

 

"The Englishmen first had to secure supplies ... Wingina, King of the Roanoke tribe, did not have enough reserves for his own people and certainly not enough for more than 100 Englishmen." (1)  

 

Go luath go leor, chuir na Sasanaigh brú ar na hIndiaigh bia a thabhairt dóibh agus rinne siad namhaid desna hIndiaigh.  Rugadh Virginia Dare, an chéad pháiste Sasanach I Meiriceá, sa dún ag Roanoke.  Ach gan chairdeas na nIndiach, ba dheacair dosna coilínigh forálacha a fháil.  Ansin, I 1588, d'éirigh cogadh idir Spáinn agus Sasana, agus ní raibh deis ag Raleigh daoine agus soláthair nua a chur chucu go dtí 1590.  Nuair ar shroich an tsluaíocht tarrthála an áit, ní raibh tásc ná tuairisc ar.na coilínigh a fháil ach an focail 'Croatoan' inghearrtha ar gheata adhmaid an dúin.  Bhí dealramh ar an gcás go ndeachaidh na marthanóirí chuig a gcairde Indiacha ar Oileán Croatan, ach d'éirigh anfa uafásach mór nó hairicín suas agus ní raibh rogha ag an sluaíocht tarrthála ach filleadh go Sasana.  Blianta i ndiaidh sin, chuala na lonnaitheoirí ag Jamestown faoi mharthanóirí i measc na nIndiach in áiteanna éagsúla, ach ní bhfuair siad aon mharthanóirí riamh.  Ar mharaigh na hIndiaigh Roanoke iad?  Ar ghabh na hIndiaigh Roanoke iad, agus Virginia Dare ina measc, ionas go bhfuil sliocht acu i measc Indiach mar na Lumbee atá beo inniu?  Ní fheadar, agus ní fheadar cad a tharla, ach tá scrúdaithe DNA ar siúl anois a fháil amach a thagann aon chuid desna hIndiaigh in aice Roanoke anuas ó na 'coilínigh Shasanacha' sin.

 

Ach tá taobh eile den scéal seo, nach n-insítear agus nach múintear.  Má léimid taifid na coilíneachta féin, faighimid go raibh a lán Éireannach i measc na gcoilíneach freisin.  Mar shampla, féach ar an dtuairisc seo faoi Edward Nugent (nó Éadhmonn Nuinseann, chun a ainm féin a thabhairt ar ais dó) ar scríobh Sir Ralph Lane a insíonn conas a mharaigh na coilínigh Wingina, "King of the Roanoke tribe" a d'athraigh a ainm go 'Pemisapan' nó 'duine nach gcuireann iontaobh i bhfir bhána.'  Maraíodh 1 Meitheamh 1586 é.

 

"... The alarme given, they tooke themselves to their bowes, and we to our armes ....The king (Pemisapan) himselfe being shot thorow by the Colonell with a pistoll, lying on the ground for dead, and I looking as watchfully for the saving of Manteos friends, as others were busie that none of the rest should escape, suddenly he started up, and ran away as though he had not bene touched, insomuch as he overran all the company, being by the way shot thwart the buttocks by mine Irish boy with my petronell. In the end an Irish man serving me, one Nugent, and the deputy provost, undertooke him; and following him in the woods, overtooke him: and I in some doubt least we had lost both the king and my man by our owne negligence to have beene intercepted by the Savages, wee met him returning out of the woods with Pemisapans head in his hand." (2)

 

Mar a fheicimid, ardaíonn an cuntas seo ceisteanna breise, mar seo a leanas.

 

Cén cineál fir ab ea é Nuinseann?

 

Scríobh Edward MacLysaght: 

 

"Nugent.  Nuinseann.  One of the hibernicized Norman families (de Nogent).  Members of the main branch in Co. Westmeath were found on both sides in the ever recurring wars with England; that of Co. Cork, which was located near Carrigaline, formed a sept with a chief in the Irish fashion.  The latter were originally de Winchedon." (3) 

 

Mar a fheicimid, ba cheann desna muintireacha Normanacha é Éadhmonn Nuinseann, muintireacha a d'éirígh 'Hiberniores Hibernis ipsis' nó 'Níos Gaelaí ná na Gaeil iad féin' ar fud na hÉireann, ag labhairt Gaeilge agus ag cleachtadh dlí agus gnáis na nGael. (4)  I bhfocail eile, ba Cheilteach é Nuinseann.

 

Cén fáth gur bhain Éadhmonn Nuinseann ceann Phemisapan?  Cén fáth nach raibh marú maith go leor d'Éadhmonn?

 

Stad na Breatnaigh ag seilg cinn sa 14ú haois, ach cleachtaigh na hÉireannaigh ceann-sheilg mar dheasghnáth Ceilteach go dtí deireadh na 16ú haoise nó tosú na 17ú haoise.  Cé gur bhain na Sasanaigh cinn páistí agus ban as mioscais chun imeagla a chur ar a naimhde, bhain na Ceiltigh cinn a naimhde is mó amháin, naimhde ar sháraigh siad i gcath nó i gcomhrac cothrom.  (Do Cheilteach, thaispeáin duine a chladhaireacht, anuaisleacht, agus laige má bhain sé ceann de neach lag.)   Thug Ceiltigh cinn naimhde mhóra abhaile leo chun ónóir a thabhairt dóibh, agus canadh amhráin faoi eachtraí móra a naimhde.  Lean sé seo ar aghaidh i measc na gCeilteach le cúpla míle bliana. (5) 

 

Mar shampla, maraíodh Sir Conyers Clifford, lámh mhaith dheas Iarla Essex, i gCath an Chorrshléibhe, 15 Lúnasa 1599.  Fuair Brian Óg Ó Ruairc a chorp agus d'ordaigh sé a dhícheannadh.  Seo daoibh conas ar mhol Na Ceithre Mháistir é, cé gur thuig siad go maith gur namhaid é.   

 

"Ba mór an techt an t-í torchair annsin, Ba doiligh mí-diach d'imirt fair. Nír bó sáimh la Gaoidhelaibh Choiccidh Medba a eccsomh, uair ba fer tiodhnaicthe séd, & maoine doibh é, & ní eibredh gaoí friú." (6) 

 

(Ba mhór an caoineadh don té a thit ansin.  Ba dhoiligh a mhí-dheireadh.  Níor thaitin le Gaeil Chúige Meadhbha a bhás, óir ba fhear a bhronn séada agus maoine dóibh é, agus níor inis sé bréag riamh dóibh.)

 

Thaispeáin Aodh Ruadh Ó Domhnaill an ceann do Ó Conchobhair Sligeach a bhí i gCaisleán Cúla Maoile i mBarúntacht Tíre Oilella i gContae Shligigh ag an am sin chun cabhair a thabhairt do Ó Conchobhair a dhualgas a chuimhniú, i. gur chóir do Ó Conchobhair troid ar shon na hÉireann agus ní ar shon na Sasanach.  Idir an dá linn, tugadh corp Clifford go hOileán Trionóide ar Loch Cé agus tugadh torramh maith Críostaí dó lena naimhde. (7)  Is dócha gur thug Ó Ruairc an ceann abhaile go Bréifne Uí Ruairc ar ball chun breis-onóir a thabhairt dó.  

 

Leis seo, is féidir linn feiceáil gur dócha go raibh moladh in ionad masla in intinn Nuinsinn nuair a bhain sé ceann Phemisapan.

 

Cá háit a d'earcfadh sluaíochtaí Raleigh Éireannaigh mar Nuinseann?

 

Gan amhras, ó cheantair in aice eastát Raleigh in Éirinn.  Bhí eastáit ag Raleigh ag Caisleán Chill Dalua i nDealbhna ('Delvin'), Co. Iarmhí; agus Eochaill in Uí Mhic Coille, Co. Chorcaigh; agus Lios Mór i gCois Abha Móire agus i gCois Bhríde, Co. Port Láirge. (8)

 

Cén eolas ar leith atá againn ar mhuintir Nuinsinn?

 

Scríobh an tAthair Pádraig de Bhulbh:

 

"de Núinseann - de Nungent, de Nugent, Nugent; Nor. 'de Nugent,' i.e., of Nogent, a common place-name in France.  The Nugents came to England with William the Conqueror, and settled in Ireland at the time of the Anglo-Norman invasion.  Gilbert de Nugent was made baron of Delvin by Hugh de Lacy, and the title continued in the family down to the year 1621 when Richard Nugent, Baron of Delvin, was created Earl of Westmeath.  The Nugents were one of the most illustrious of the Norman families in Ireland.  For special reference to the Nugents of Cork, see under Uinnseadún." (9) 

 

"Uinnseadún - Unsedon, Winsedon, Wynchedon, (Nugent); Nor. 'de Wynchester,' i.e., of Winchester, an ancient episcopal city in Hampshire.  Members of the family of Nugent who came form this city and settled early in Cork were known in Irish by the surname Uinnseadún, which was intended to represent Winchester.  These Nugents formed a clan after the Irish fashion.  The chief lived at Aghavarten Castle, near Carrigaline.  The original surname, Nugent, has been retained in English.  Cf. Núinseann." (10) 

 

Tá Carraig Uí Leighin ('Carrigaline') sé mhíle is fiche ó Eochaill, achar fada in Éirinn sa 16ú haois.  Ach is ionann Dealbhna Raleigh agus Dealbhna Nuinsinn.  Mar sin, is dóichí gur tháinig Éadhmonn Nuinseann ó Dhealbhna in Iarmhí in aice eastáit Raleigh ag Caisleán Chill Dalua.  Agus is dócha go raibh Éadhmonn Nuinseann gaolta ag leibhéal éigin leis an mBarún Dealbhna, ach ní go han-ghar toisc go raibh Éadhmonn Nuinseann i seirbhís ag Ralph Lane. 

 

Cén fáth gur earcaigh Lane agus Raleigh Éireannaigh mar Nuinseann?

 

I bhfocail Lane féin, ba "fhear Éireannach" ('an Irish man') é Nuinseann.  Cé go raibh éagsúlacht i meoin na nÉireannach idir na Gaeil agus na Sean-Ghaill mar Nuinseann, is léir gur earcaíodh Nuinseann toisc go raibh cumas na nGael Fiáin nó 'Wilde Irish' aige a throid mar aon cheithearnach coille eile i bhforaoisí doimhne a chuir scanradh ar na Sasanaigh. 

 

Cén fáth go dtroidfeadh Nuinseann ar son na Sasanach?

 

Dáileadh gach ceart agus pribhléid i sóchaí Ghaelach don chine, agus mar sin, bhí gach ceart agus pribhléid bunaithe ar ghinealach.  I ndearcadh Nuinsinn, agus é agus a mhuintir éirithe chomh Gaelaí agus na Gaeil iad féin, bhí aithne aige ar a ghinealach chomh maith agus chomh iomlán mar aon Éireannach eile, Gael nó Gall.  De réir sin, bhí a fhios aige gur bhall de mhuintir Shean-Ghallda chéimiúil é agus gan amhras go raibh cumas aige a ghinealach a reacaireacht ar ais aníos go dtí an ghabháil Chambró-Normanach, agus b'fhéidir roimhe sin. 

 

Cé nach raibh aon Sacsbhéarla riamh ag a mhuintir roimh a ghlúin féin, agus gur stad siad Fraincis Normanach a labhairt am éigin roimh lár na 14ú haoise, thuig sé go maith gur de shliocht Normanach é, agus mar sin, go raibh 'Ceartanna na Sasanach' aige a fuair na Normanaigh mar a n-oidhreacht óna sinsir i Sasana, i mBreatain Bheag, in Albain, agus in Éirinn.

 

Chun teacht slán as an gconcas barbartha ar bhris na Sasanaigh ar Éirinn sa 16ú haois, roghnaigh sé a ghéillsine bunaithe ar ghaolta fola ársa, .i. ar chine, in ionad teangan, dlí, éadaigh, agus gnáis.  Ba rogha an-Ghaelach é seo féin.   Leis seo is léir gur féidir linn a rá gur sampla de cheann-sheilg mar dheasghnáth Ceilteach é seo sa Domhan Nua, glúin roimh dheireadh an ghnáis sin in Éirinn.

 

Cad a insíonn an tarlú seo dúinn faoi chéard a bhí i ndán do Mheiriceánaigh Dhúchasacha?

 

Go dtí lár na 17ú haoise (.i. go dtí gur leag na Sasanaigh foraoisí na hÉireann chun foscadh dosna naimhde Éireannacha a mhilleadh), bhí ar fáil ag na Sasanaigh ní amháin géillsloinntí, ach comhghuaillithe mar Nuinseann chomh maith, a bhí chomh feidhmiúil agus na hIndiaigh i gcogadh foraoise.  

 

Bhéarfadh an infhaighteacht sin torrthaí searbha do Mheiriceánaigh Dhúchasacha, díreach mar a bhéarfadh an fhíric bhrónach seo do Phemisapan.  

Edward Nugent and the Lost Colony of Roanoke

 

This story is very famous in the United States.  Here's the story as it's told and taught in every history textbook in every high school in the United States, and by the National Park Service, part of the U.S. government.   

 

It was the first attempt the English made to establish a permanent colony in North America.  In 1585, 1586, and 1587, Sir Walter Raleigh sent colonists west across the ocean to Roanoke, an island on the coast of what is now the state of North Carolina, although he didn't come himself.  The English had friends amongst the Native Americans or 'American Indians' on the island of Croatan (perhaps Hatteras Island), but the English settled on another island near Croatan by the name of Roanoke. 

 

"The Englishmen first had to secure supplies ... Wingina, King of the Roanoke tribe, did not have enough reserves for his own people and certainly not enough for more than 100 Englishmen." (1)  

 

Soon enough, the English put pressure on the Indians to give food to them and they made enemies of the Indians.  Virginia Dare was born, the first English child born in America, in the fort at Roanoke.  But without friendship of the Indians, it was difficult for the colonists to get provisions.  Then, in 1588, war came between Spain and England, and Raleigh didn't have opportunity to send new people or provisions to them until 1590.  When the relief expedition reached the place, there wasn't any sign of the colonists except the word 'Croatan' carved on the wooden gate of the palisade.  It looked as if the survivors had gone to their Indian friends on Croatan Island, but a terrible, huge storm arose and the relief expedition didn't have any choice but to return to England.  Years later, the settlers at Jamestown heard about survivors amongst the Indians in various places, but they didn't ever find any survivors.  Did the Roanoke Indians kill them?  Did the Roanoke Indians capture them, with Virginia Dare amongst them, so that they have descendants amongst Indians like the Lumbee who are alive today?  Nobody knows, and nobody knows what happened, but DNA tests are being done now to find out whether any of the Indians near Roanoke descend from those 'English colonists'.  

 

But there's another side of the story, which isn't told and which isn't taught.  If we read the colony's own records, we find that there were also plenty of Irish among the colonists.  For example, look at this report about Edward Nugent (or Éadhmonn Nuinseann, to give his own name back to him) which Sir Ralph Lane wrote and which tells how the colonists killed Wingina, 'King of the Roanoke tribe" who changed his name to 'Pemisapan' or 'person who doesn't trust white men.'  He was killed June 1, 1586.

 

"... The alarme given, they tooke themselves to their bowes, and we to our armes ....The king (Pemisapan) himselfe being shot thorow by the Colonell with a pistoll, lying on the ground for dead, and I looking as watchfully for the saving of Manteos friends, as others were busie that none of the rest should escape, suddenly he started up, and ran away as though he had not bene touched, insomuch as he overran all the company, being by the way shot thwart the buttocks by mine Irish boy with my petronell. In the end an Irish man serving me, one Nugent, and the deputy provost, undertooke him; and following him in the woods, overtooke him: and I in some doubt least we had lost both the king and my man by our owne negligence to have beene intercepted by the Savages, wee met him returning out of the woods with Pemisapans head in his hand." (2)

 

As we see, this account raises additional questions, like these below.

 

What kind of a man was Nuinseann?

 

Edward MacLysaght wrote:

 

"Nugent.  Nuinseann.  One of the hibernicized Norman families (de Nogent).  Members of the main branch in Co. Westmeath were found on both sides in the ever recurring wars with England; that of Co. Cork, which was located near Carrigaline, formed a sept with a chief in the Irish fashion.  The latter were originally de Winchedon." (3) 

 

As we see, Éadhmonn Nuinseann was one of the Norman families of the 'Old-Foreigners,' families who became 'Hiberniores Hibernis ipsis' nó 'Níos Gaelaí ná na Gaeil iad féin' throughout Ireland, speaking Irish and using the law and custom of the Gael. (4)  In other words, Nuinseann was a Celt. 

 

Why did Éadhmonn Nuinseann take the head of Pemisapan?  Why wasn't killing good enough for Éadhmonn?

 

The Welsh stopped hunting heads in the 14th century, but the Irish practiced head-hunting as a Celtic ritual until the beginning of the 17th century.  Although the English took heads of children and women from spite to intimidate their enemies, the Celts only took the heads of their greatest enemies in battle or in fair combat.  (For a Celt, a man showed his cowardice, his lack of nobility, and his weakness if he took the head of a weak person.)  Celts brought heads of great enemies home to honor them, and to sing songs about great deeds of their enemies.  This continued amongst the Celts for a couple of thousand years. (5) 

 

As an example, Sir Conyers Clifford, the good right-hand of the Earl of Essex, was killed in the Battle of the Curlews, 15 August 1599.  Brian Óg Ó Ruairc found his body and ordered his beheading.  Here's how The Four Masters praised him, although they understood that he was an enemy.

 

"Ba mór an techt an t-í torchair annsin, Ba doiligh mí-diach d'imirt fair. Nír bó sáimh la Gaoidhelaibh Choiccidh Medba a eccsomh, uair ba fer tiodhnaicthe séd, & maoine doibh é, & ní eibredh gaoí friú." (6)

 

(Great was the lamentation for the one who fell there.  It was difficult his bad end.  His death did not please the Gaeil of Meadhbh's Fifth, for he was a man who bestowed jewels and wealth to them, and he never told them a lie.)

 

Aodh Ruadh Ó Domhnaill showed the head to Ó Conchobhair Sligeach who was in the Castle of Cúla Maoile in the Barony of Tír Ailealla to help Ó Conchobhair remember his duty, i.e., that Ó Conchobhair should fight for Ireland and not for the English.  Meanwhile, Clifford's body was taken to Trinity Island on Loch Cé and a good Christian burial was given to it by his enemies. (7)  It's probable that Ó Ruairc brought the head home to Bréifne Uí Ruairc to give it additional honor.

 

With this, we can see that it's possible that praise instead of insult was in Nuinseann's mind when he took the head of Pemisapan.

 

Where would Sir Walter Raleigh's expedition recruit Irishmen like Nuinseann? 

 

No doubt from territories near Raleigh's estates in Ireland.  Raleigh had estates at Caisleán Chill Dalua ('Killua Castle') in Dealbhna ('Delvin'), Co. Westmeath, in Eochaill ('Youghal'), Co. Cork, and in Lios Mór ('Lismore'), Co. Waterford.(8) 

 

What special knowledge do we have about the Nuinseann family?

 

Father Pádraig de Bhulbh wrote:

 

"de Núinseann - de Nungent, de Nugent, Nugent; Nor. 'de Nugent,' i.e., of Nogent, a common place-name in France.  The Nugents came to England with William the Conqueror, and settled in Ireland at the time of the Anglo-Norman invasion.  Gilbert de Nugent was made baron of Delvin by Hugh de Lacy, and the title continued in the family down to the year 1621 when Richard Nugent, Baron of Delvin, was created Earl of Westmeath.  The Nugents were one of the most illustrious of the Norman families in Ireland.  For special reference to the Nugents of Cork, see under Uinnseadún." (9) 

 

"Uinnseadún - Unsedon, Winsedon, Wynchedon, (Nugent); Nor. 'de Wynchester,' i.e., of Winchester, an ancient episcopal city in Hampshire.  Members of the family of Nugent who came form this city and settled early in Cork were known in Irish by the surname Uinnseadún, which was intended to represent Winchester.  These Nugents formed a clan after the Irish fashion.  The chief lived at Aghavarten Castle, near Carrigaline.  The original surname, Nugent, has been retained in English.  Cf. Núinseann." (10) 

 

Carraig Uí Leighin ('Carrigaline') is 26 miles from Youghal, a long distance in Ireland in the 16th century.  But the Dealbhna of Raleigh and the Dealbhna of Nuinseann are the same.  Therefore, it's more probable that Éadhmonn Nuinseann came from Dealbhna in Westmeath near Raleigh's estate at Caisleán Chill Dalua.  And it's probable that Éadhmonn Nuinseann was related at some level to the Baron of Delvin, but not very closely because Éadhmonn Nuinseann was in service to Ralph Lane. 

 

Why did Lane and Raleigh recruit Irish like Nuinseann?

 

In Lane's own words, Nugent was 'an Irish man.'  Although there was a difference in the Irish mind between the Gaeil and the Sean-Ghaill like Nuinseann, it's apparent that Nuinseann was recruited because he had the ability of the 'Wilde Irishe' to fight like any other wood-kern in deep forests which frightened the English. 

 

Why would Nugent fight for the English?

 

All rights and privileges in Gaelic society were granted to the kinship group, and were therefore based on genealogy.  From Nugent's point of view, and he and his family having become as Irish as the Irish themselves, he knew his genealogy as well as any other Irishman, Gael or Gall.  Accordingly, he knew he was a member of a distinguished Sean-Ghall / Old Foreigner family and could no doubt recite his genealogy back to the Cambro-Norman invasion, and perhaps before that. 

 

Even though his family never spoke English before his own generation, and stopped speaking Norman French some time before the middle of the 14th century, he understood well that he was of Norman descent, and therefore that he possessed the 'rights of Englishmen' which the Normans received as their inheritance from their ancestors in England, Wales, Scotland, and in Ireland. 

 

To survive the savage conquest which the English inflicted on Ireland in the 16th century, he chose his allegiance based on ancient blood-ties, i.e., on kinship group, rather than language, law, dress, or custom.  This itself was a very Gaelic decision. 

 

With this it's apparent that we can also say that this is an example of ritualized Celtic headhunting in the New World, a generation before the end of that custom in Ireland.

 

What does this incident tell us about what was in store for Native Americans? 

 

Until the middle of the 17th century (i.e., until the English had felled the forests of Ireland to destroy the shelter of their Irish enemies), the English had not only subject peoples available to them, but also allies like Nuinseann, who were as effective as the Indians in forest warfare.

 

That availability would bear bitter fruit for Native Americans, just as it had for Pemisapan.

Copyright (c) Gerald A. John Kelly 2009

 

 

BUN-FHOINSÍ / SOURCES

 

MacLysaght, Edward.  Surnames of Ireland.  Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1980.

 

Woulfe, Patrick.  Sloinnte Gaedheal Is Gall.  Kansas City: Irish Genealogical Foundation, 1992.

 

FO-NÓTAÍ / FOOTNOTES

 

1.  http://www.nps.gov/fora/forteachers/the-first-english-colony.htm  

 

2.  http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/jamestown-browse?id=J1016 , read 6/7/09)

 

3.  MacLysaght, p. 238

 

4.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/More_Irish_than_the_Irish_themselves

 

5.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celts, read 6/7/09

 

6.  http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100005F/index.html, 1599.41

 

7.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Curlew_Pass, read 6/7/09

 

8.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Raleigh

 

9.  Woulfe, p. 271

 

10.  Woulfe, p. 682

 

 

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