Fáithe agus Fáistiní in Annála na Meánaoiseanna - Cuid a hAon - Go dtí an 12ú hAois /   Irish Prophets and Prophecies in the Medieval Irish Annals - Part One - Until the 12th Century

Go dtí Teacht na Normanach

Chreideadh na Gaeil go mhair fáithe ina measc.  Chreid siad i bhfáistiní na bhfáithe seo mar is féidir linn feiceáil sna hannála seo:  

 

Annála Locha Cé (LC)

Annála Connacht (AC)

Annála Uladh (AU)

Annála Rioghachta Éireann (ARÉ) .i. Annála na gCeithre

Máistrí.

 

Seo daoibh samplaí.

 

Until the Coming of the Normans

The Gaeil used to believe that prophets lived amongst them.  They believed in the prophecies of these prophets as we can see in these medieval Irish annals:

 

Annals of Loch Cé (LC)

Annals of Connacht (AC)

Annals of Ulster (AU)

Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland, i.e., the Annals of the Four Masters (AFM)

 

Here are examples.

      Bun-Iontráil / Original Entry:

       Nua-Ghaeilge / Modern Irish:

             Sacsbhéarla / English:

ARÉ:  Anno Mundi 3790.  Iar m-beith d'Aenghus Olmucadha ocht m-bliadhna decc in n-airdrighe Ereann do-cher i c-cath Carman lá h-Enna n-Airgtheach. As e Aenghus ro bris na catha-so: cath Clére, cath Cuirce, cath Slébhe Cuilge for Mhairtine i c-crích Corca Baisccinn, cath Ruis Fraochain i Muiriscc i torchair Fraochan Fáidh ...      

 

 

 

ARÉ:  Anno Mundi 2850  Neimhidh do techt in n-Erinn ....  At iad annso na cethra h-airigh batar lais, Sdarn, Iarbhainel Faidh, Fearghus Leithderg, 7 Aindind ...

 

ARÉ:  A.D. 448

Muinnter Phadruig na patter

accá raibhe ro-Laitten

Meabhra lim, ni cuirt cranna,

a n-uirt is a n-anmanna ...

 

 

... Cribri is Lasra na leand

ingheana glana Glegrand

Mac Raidh car sai abhir as Erc

ra tharngair re na tri uidheacht ...

 

AU:  A.D. 516

Fiacha m. Neill ni chelaid,

Ba fair tar cremla cili

Cath Fremna Midi memhaid.

 

ARÉ:  Anno Mundi 3790.  Iar m-beith d'Aonghus Olmucadha ocht mbliana déag in airdrighe Eireann, thit sé i gcath Carmain le hEnna Airgtheach. Is é Aongus é a bhris na catha seo: cath Chléire, cath Chuirce, cath Shléibhe Chailge ar Mhairtine i gcríoch Chorca Bhaiscinn, cath Ruis Fraocháin i Muirisc inar thit Fraochán Fáidh ...       

 

 

 

 

ARÉ:  Anno Mundi 2850  Tháinig Neimhid in hÉrinn ....  Is iad anseo na ceithre aireacha a bhí leis:  Sdarn, Iarbhainel Fáidh, Fearghus Leithdheirg, agus Ainninn....

 

 

ARÉ:  A.D. 448

Muintir Phádraig na bpaidreacha,

acu a raibh sár-Laidin

Is cuimhin liom (ní cúirt anbhann)

a n-ord is a n-ainmneacha: ...

 

 

... Cribri is Lasra na leann

iníonacha glana Ghleagrainn

Mac Raith saí agus Erc

do thairngir ina thrí uacht ...

 

AU:  A.D. 516

Fiacha mac Néill ní cheileann tú,

Ba é é, in ainneoin bhréag-fháistine,

a madhmadh i gCath Freamna Mhidhe.

 

AFM:  Anno Mundi 3790.  After Aengus Olmucadha had been 18 years in the high-kingship of Ireland, he fell in the battle of Carmann by Enna Airgtheach. It is Aengus who gained these battles:  Battle of Clere; Battle of Cuirce, Battle of Sliabh Cailge against the Martine in the territory of Corca Bhaiscinn; Battle of Ros Fraechan in Muirisc in which fell Fraechan the prophet ...

 

AFM:  Anno Mundi 2850.  Neimhidh came to Ireland ... These were the four chieftains who were with him: Sdarn, Iarbhainel the Prophet, Fearghus Leithdheirg, and Ainninn ...

 

AFM:  A.D. 448

The family of Patrick of the prayers,

who had good Latin

I remember (no feeble court were they)

their order and their names: ...

 

... Cribri and Lasra of mantles,

beautiful daughters of Gleaghrann.

Macraith the wise, and Erc

who prophesied in his three wills ...

 

AU:  A.D. 516

You do not hide Fiachu son of Niall—

It was he who, despite a false prophecy,

Was defeated in the battle of Fremain of Mide.

Insan iontráil a leanas ar an mbliain 526, scríobhadh tagairt ar bhás ósnádúrtha Mhuirecheartaigh mhic Érca.  Cumadh mórscéal nó ‘saga’ iomráiteach air (atá againn fós) ina maraíonn Sín (.i. ‘Anfa’) é le shá, bhá, agus dhó, an bás trífhillte a faightear ó am go ham i miotas agus i ndlí ársa Indó-Eorpach.  Freisin, feicimid go smaoineadh gur chóir fáistine a chruthú i bhfilíocht, ní mar phrós.  Agus feicimid gur smaoineadh go raibh Sín desna Sidh (litrithe mar ‘Sigh’ san iontráil seo).  

         

In the entry which follows for the year 526, we see a reference to the supernatural death of Muircheartach mac Érca.  A famous saga was composed about him (which we still have) in which Sín (i.e., Storm) kills him with piercing, drowning, and burning, the ‘threefold death’ which is sometimes found in ancient Indo-European myth and law.  Also, we see that it was thought that it was right to create a prophecy in poetry, not as prose.  And we can see that it was thought that Sín was of the Sidh (spelled as Sigh in this entry.)

ARÉ:  A.D. 526

As do thairrngire báis Mhuircheartaigh ad-beart Cairneach

 

 

Asam uamhon ar in m-bein,

ima luaidhfe ilor Sin,

Ar fhiur loisccfidher i t-tin,

for taoibh Cletigh báidhfir fin

 

 

 

.i. la Sín ingin Sighe do-rochair Muircertach, i c-cionadh a h-athar ro marbh-somh.

ARÉ:  A.D. 526

Chun báis Mhuircheartaigh a thairngreacht, dúirt (Naomh) Cairneach:

 

 

Tá uafás agam ar an mbean,

uimpi luaidhfear uile Sín,

Ar fhear a loiscfear i dtine,

ar thaobh Chleitigh báfar i bhfíon é

 

 

 

.i. le Sín iníon Shighe do thit Muirceartach i ndíoltas a hathar ar mharbhaigh Muircheartach é.

AFM:  A.D. 526

It was to predict the death of Muircheartach that (St). Cairneach said: 

 

I am fearful of the woman

around her all storms will quicken

For the man who shall be burned in fire,

on the side of Cleiteach he will drown in wine.  

 

That is, by Sin, daughter of Sighe, Muircheartach was killed, in revenge of her father, whom he had slain.

Sna hiontrálacha seo ar an mbliain A.D. 557, tá ainm an naoimh an-suimiúil.        

 

In these entries for the year A.D. 557, the name of the saint is very interesting.

ARÉ:  A.D. 557

S Becc mac Dé, faidh oirrdherc, d'écc.

 

AU:  A.D. 558

Mors Bhig mc. Dhe prophete.

 

ARÉ:  A.D. 557

Naomh Bec mac Dé, fáidh oirirc, d'éag.

 

AU:  A.D. 558

Bás Bhig mhic Dhé fáidh.

 

AFM:  A.D. 557

St. Bec, son of God, a celebrated prophet, died.

 

AU:  A.D. 558

Death of the prophet Béc son of God.

San iontráil seo a leanas, tá tagairt againn do thairngreacht agus freisin dosna Lochlannaigh agus a sladaíocht:   

 

In this following entry, we have a reference to prophesying and also to the Vikings and their plundering:

ARÉ:  A.D. 822.  Orgain Beannchair la Gallaibh, & cosccradh a derthaighe, 7 relcci Comhghaill do chrothadh as an sgrín ina rabhsat, amhail ro thairngir Comghall féisin, dia n-ebairt

 

 

 

Bidh fír, fír,

do dheoin áirdrigh na rígh,

Berthor mo cnámha gan crón,

ó Bheandchuir bagha do Eantrobh.

 

ARÉ:  A.D. 822.  Argain Bheannchair le Gaill, & coscraíodh a dairtheach (.i. a aireagal), & croitheadh taisí Chomhghaill as an scrín ina raibh siad, amhail do thairngir (Naomh) Comghall é féin nuair a dúirt sé:

 

 

 

Beidh sé fíor, fíor,

de dheoin airdrí na rí,

Béarfar mo cnámha gan cron,

ó Bheannchair bhá (.i. ionúin) go hAontroim.

 

 

AFM:  A.D. 822.  The plundering (better translation:  ‘slaughter’) of Beannchair by the foreigners; the oratory was broken, and the relics of (Saint) Comhghall were shaken from the shrine in which they were, as Comhghall himself had foretold, when he said:

 

It will be true, true,

by the will of the supreme King of kings,

My bones shall be brought, without defect,

from beloved Beannchair to Antrim.

Sna hiontrálacha a leanas, feicimid freisin tagairtí dosna hiomaíochtaí a chráigh agus a lagaigh Éire ar feadh na Meánaoiseanna.        

 

In the entries which follow, we also see references to the rivalries which tormented and weakened Ireland throughout the Middle Ages.

ARÉ:  A.D. 825

... tionóilidh Niall a shlógha .i. Conaill 7 Eoghain. Tionóilidh Cumusccach, tigherna Airghiall, 7 Muireadhach, mac Eathach, tigherna Ua Eathach Uladh, Airghialla 7 Ulaidh, 7 fearthair cath crodha etorra, .i. cath Leithe Caim, h-i Maigh Enir. As do thairngire in catha sin ro thiorchan Da Chiarócc .i. naomh a h-Airiccul

 

 

 

 

 

Lethi Cam,

do faethsat mór n-gerat ann,

Tarrustar occ Leith Luin

cidh cian, cidh cuin is cidh mall.

 

As do thairngire an chatha cédna ad-bert Becc mac Dé

 

Leithe Cam,

con-ricfad dias amhnus ann,

Bidh ri Eoghan ar Eoghan,

ard an gleóghal bhias and.

 

Ro comhailleadh samhlaidh ... ro meabhaidh for Airgiallaibh, 7 ro díóthaighit, 7 ro lenta co Craibh Caille ...

 

ARÉ:  A.D. 1015

Donn Cuan, .i. An Baethan, mac Dunlaing, tigherna Laighen, 7 Tadhg ua Riain, tighearna Ua n-Dróna, do mharbhadh lá Donnchadh, mac Giolla Patraicc, i Leithghlionn iar n-dénamh dóibh cotaigh 7 comhluighe i t-tús laoi. (Naomh) Mo Ling ro tairngir innso

 

 

Donn Durgen,

agus an righ-bard ruibhnech,

tethsat commond i n-Glind Gerg,

nisn-ain comluighi croderg.

 

 

 

ARÉ:  A.D. 1080

Maidhm Atha Earghail lá taobh Clochair for Feraibh Manach ria n-Domhnall Ua Lochlainn, 7 ria b-Fheraibh Moighe h-Iotha, i t-torcrattar ingrinntidhe Arda Macha .i. Sitrioc Ua Caomháin, 7 mac Néill Ui Sherraigh, 7 daoine iomdha oile. As occ tairrngire an chatha sin ro ráidheatth,

 

 

Ath Ergail,

in drong n-aittlaic aterbhaid,

sochaidhe bhias gan ionmain,

do iomghuin Atha Erghail.

ARÉ:  A.D. 825

... Thionóil Niall a shlua .i. Cinéal Chonaill & Cinéal Eoghain. Thionóil Cumuscach, tiarna Airghiall, & Muireadhach mac Eathach, tiarna Ua Eathach Uladh, Airghialla & Ulaidh, & fearadh cath cróga eadarthu, .i. cath Leithe Caim, i Maigh Enir. Is do thairngreacht an chatha sin gur thuar Da Chiaróg .i. naomh ó Aireagal Dochiaróg:

 

 

 

 

 

Leath Cam,

fágfar laochra móra ann,

Béarfar orthu ag Leath Luin

cia cian, cia déanach is cia mall.

 

Is chun an chatha chéanna a thairngreacht a dúirt Bec mac Dé:

 

Leath Cam,

chomhshroich dias amhnas ann,

Beidh rí Eoghan ar Chinéal Eoghain,

ard an gleo a bheas ann.

 

Comhlíonadh é seo samhlaidh ... Madhmadh ar Airgialla, & díothaíodh agus leanadh iad go Craobh Caille ...

 

ARÉ:  A.D. 1015

Donn Cuan, .i. An Baothán, mac Dunlaing, tiarna Laighean, & Tadhg Ua Riain, tiarna Ua Dróna, a marbhadh le Donnchadh mac Giolla Phádraig i Leithghlinn iar gcotach & gcomhluí a dhéanamh dóibh i dtús an lae. Thairngir (Naomh) Mo Ling é seo:

 

 

 

Donn Durgen,

agus an rí-bhárd ruibhne,

Sáróidh siad cumann i nGleann Gearg,

ní choiscfidh comhluí cródhearg.

 

 

 

ARÉ:  A.D. 1080

Maidhm Átha Earghail le taobh Clochair ar Fir Manach le Domhnall Ua Lochlainn, & le Fir Moighe Íotha, inar thit creachadóirí Aird Mhacha .i. Sitrioc Ua Caomháin, & mac Néill Ui Shearraigh, & daoine iomdha eile. Is ag tairngreacht an chatha sin dúradh:

 

 

 

 

Áth Earghail,

an drong san áit a bheas scaipthe,

sochaí a bheas gan ionúin,

de imghoin Átha Earghail.

AFM:  A.D. 825

... Niall mustered his forces, i.e., the races of Conall and Eoghan. Cumusgach, lord of Airghialla, and Muireadhach, son of Eochadh, lord of Ui Eathach Uladh, mustered the Airghialla and the Ulidians; and a spirited battle was fought between them, i. e. the battle of Leithe Cam, in Magh Enir. It was to foretell that battle that Dachiaróg, i.e. the Saint of Aireagal Dochiaróg, prophetically chanted:

 

Leath Cam,

great heroes shall perish there,

They shall be caught at Leth Luin,

though far, though late, though slow.

 

It was to predict the same battle that Beg mac De said:

 

Leath Cam,

a fierce pair there shall meet;

Eoghan shall be king over Eoghan;

noble the conflict which will be there.

 

This was fulfilled accordingly ... The Airghialla were defeated, cut down, and pursued to Craebh Caille ...

 

AFM:  A.D. 1015

Donncuan, i.e. the Simpleton, son of Dunlaing, lord of Leinster, and Tadhg Ua Riain, lord of Ui-Drona, was slain by Donnchadh, son of Gillaphadraig, at Leithghlinn, after they had made friendship, and taken a mutual oath in the beginning of the day. Moling delivered this prophecy:

 

Donndurgen,

and the royal Bard of lances,

They willl violate friendship at Gleanngerg;

mutual oaths shall not prevent bloodshed.

 

AFM:  A.D. 1080

.  The battle of Ath-Erghail, by the site of Clochar, was gained over the Feara-Manach, by Domhnall Ua Lochlainn and the men of Magh-Itha, where fell the plunderers of Ard-Macha, namely, Sitric Ua Caemhain, and the son of Niall Ua Searraigh, and many other persons. To predict this battle was said: 

 

Ath-Ergail,

people shall hereafter be there dispersed;

Numbers shall be without affection,

by the conflict of Ath-Erghail.

Tharla plánna go minic sna céadta seo, agus scanraigh siad an tsochaí, mar a fheicimid san iontráil seo.  

 

Plagues happened often in these centuries and they terrorized the society, as we see in this entry.

ARÉ:  A.D. 1096

Feil Eóin for Aoine isin m-bliadhain-si. Ro ghabh imeagla mhór Fiora Ereann reimpi, conadh i comhairle ar-riacht lá cleirchibh Ereann im comarba Phátraicc dia n-imdhiden ar an tedhmaim ro tircanadh dóibh ó chéin a forchongra for chach a c-coitchinne tredhenos ó Chedaoin go Domhnach do dénamh gacha mís 7 trosccadh gach laoi go cenn m-bliadhna, cenmotát domhnaighe, 7 sollamna, 7 aird-fheile, 7 dan do-ratsat almsana, 7 edbarta iomdha do Dhia. Tuccadh dan feranna iomdha do eccailsibh, 7 chléircibh, ó ríoghaibh, 7 taoisechaibh, 7 ro saortha Fir Ereann an tucht sin ar téine na díoghla.

 

ARÉ:  A.D. 1096

Féile Eóin ar Aoine insan mbliain-seo. Ghabh eagla mhór Fir Éireann roimpi, agus i gcomhairle reachtaíodh le cléirigh Éireann um chomarba Phádraig dá ndídean ar an dteidhm a tuaradh dóibh ó chéin, forchongra (.i. foláireamh) ar chach i gcoitinne .i. tréanas ó Cheadaoin go Domhnach a dhéanamh gach mí & troscadh gach lá go ceann bliana ach Domhnaigh & sollúntachtaí & aird-fhéilte, & freisin dáileadh almsana & íobairtí iomdha do Dhia. Tugadh fearainn iomdha do eaglaisí & chléirigh ó ríthe & thaoisigh, & saoradh Fir Éireann an t-am sin ó thine na díoghla (.i. ó thine an díoltais).

 

 

AFM:  A.D. 1096

The festival of John fell on Friday this year; the men of Ireland were seized with great fear in consequence, and the resolution adopted by the clergy of Ireland, with the successor of Patrick at their head, to protect them against the pestilence which had been predicted / prophetically chanted (1) to them at a remote period, was, to command all in general to observe abstinence, from Wednesday till Sunday, every month and to fast on one meal every day till the end of a year, except on Sundays, solemnities, and great festivals, and they also made alms and many offerings to God; and many lands were granted to churches and clergymen by kings and chieftains; and the men of Ireland were saved for that time from the fire of vengeance.

San iontráil seo a leanas, feicimid gurbh fhéidir le fáistine (mar an fháistine a luaíodh san iontráil ag A.D. 825 thuas) a ath-mhíniú agus í a nascadh le tarlú eile.  

 

In this following entry, we see that it was possible to re-interpret a prophecy (like the one which was mentioned at A.D. 825 above) and link it to an additional event.

ARÉ:  A.D. 1166

Eochaidh mac Duinn Slebhe Ui Eochadha, ri Uladh, tuir gaisccidh 7 enigh na n-Gaoidheal, do dhalladh lá Muirchertach Ua Lochlainn, 7 an tríur bá fearr do Dhál Araidhe ... dar comairge comharba Pháttraicc, 7 Bachla Iosa, Dhonnchaidh Uí Cerbhaill, tigherna Oirghiall, & dar comairgemind, laech & clérech Tuaisceirt Erenn uile.  Sluaighedh lá Donnchadh Ua c-Cearbhaill iar sin h-i t-Tir n-Eocchain do dhíoghail einigh Phatraicc, 7 a einigh féin ...  Fechtar cath amhnus ettrócair ettorra diblinibh, 7 ro mheabhaid for Chenél n-Eoghain, 7 ro marbhadh Muirchertach Ua Lachlainn, áirdrí Ereann uile, an chaindeal gaile 7 ghaisccidh, einigh, 7 engnamha iarthair domhain ina ré ...  As acc tairngire catha Lethi Caimm, 7 an chatha-so ro ráidh Dá Chiarócc .i. naomh a h-Aireccal:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lethi Camm,

Do-faethsat mór n-geratt and,

Tarrustair occ Letir Lúin,

Cídh cian, cidh cuin, is cidh mall.

ARÉ:  A.D. 1166

Eochaidh mac Duinn Shléibhe Ui Eochadha, rí Uladh, tor gaiscíochta & einigh na nGael, & an tríúr ba fhearr de Dhál Araidhe ... a dalladh le Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn (Rí Chinéil Eoghain agus Ard-Rí na hÉireann) thar choimirce chomharba Phádraig & Bachaille Íosa, Dhonnchaidh Uí Chearbhaill, tiarna Airghiall, & thar choimirce laochra & cléireach Thuaiscirt Éireann uile.  Thug Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill (Rí Airghiall) iar sin slua i dTír Eoghain chun eineach Phádraig (.i. urrús Phádraig) agus a eineach féin a dhíoghail.  ...  Fearadh cath amhnas éadrócaireach eadarthu, & mamhadh ar Chinéal Eoghain, & marbhadh Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn, airdrí Éireann uile, an choinneal ghaile, ghaiscíochta, einigh, & eangnamha Iarthair Domhain ina ré ...  Is ag tairngreacht Chatha Leithe Chaim & an chatha seo go ndúirt Da Chiaróg .i. naomh ó Aireagal Dochiaróg:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leath Cam,

fágfar laochra móra ann,

Béarfar orthu ag Leath Luin

cia cian, cia déanach is cia mall.

AFM:  A.D. 1166

Eochaidh Mac Duinnsleibhe Ua Eochadha, pillar of the prowess and facéhonor/hospitality of the Irish, and the three best men of the Dal-Araidhe, were blinded by Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn;... in violation of the protection of the successor of Patrick and the Staff of Jesus; of Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Airghialla; and in violation of the protection of the relics, laity, and clergy of all the north of Ireland.  After this an army was led by Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, into Tir-Eoghain, to revenge the violation of the guarantee of Patrick and his own guarantee....   A fierce and merciless battle was fought between them, in which the Cinel-Eoghain were defeated, with the loss of Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn, Monarch of all Ireland, the chief lamp of the valour amd chivalry, hospitality, and prowess of the west of the world in his time…  It was to foretell the battle of Leath Cam and this battle, Dachiarog, i.e. the saint of Airegal, said:

 

Lethi-Cam,

Great heroes shall perish there,

They shall be caught at Leitir-Luin,

Though far, though late, though slow.

Tá níos mó le teacht i gCuid a Dó – Fáithe agus Fáistiní ón 13ú hAois go dtí an 17ú hAois.    

 

There's more to come in Part Two - Prophets and Prophecies from the 13th Century until the 17th Century.

 

 

 

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